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Potential

Hydro resources take the first place among the natural riches of Georgia. There are 26 000 rivers on the territory of the country. Their total length is approximately 60 000 km. The entire fresh water supply of Georgia, which is made up of ice, lakes and water reservoirs, is 96.5 km3. Around 300 rivers are significant in terms of energy production; their total annual potential capacity is equivalent to 15000 MW, while the average annual production equals to 50 bln. KWh.
Considering peculiarities of Georgian rivers, which are characterized by distinct seasonality, these resources can be distributed only by building hydro power stations with regulating water reservoir in the short and long term perspectives. However, from the ecological point of view, such kind of constructions is difficult. That's why hydro power stations with small reservoirs are more common. The Government of Georgia has approved the State Program – “Renewable Energy 2008” which includes the list of potential greenfield projects and rules for construction of new renewable energy sources.
In the scope of the above-mentioned program memorandums of understanding are signed between the Government of Georgia and investors on the following projects such as:

Khudoni HPP – with the installed capacity of 750 MW and generation of 1,5 bln KWh; Cascade of Namakhvani HPPs - with the installed capacity of 450 MW and generation of 1 670 mln KWh; Faravani HPP - with the installed capacity of 78 MW and generation of 425 mln KWh; Cascade of HPPs on the rivers: Chorokhistkali, Lukhuni, Tekhura, Gubazeuli, Mtkvari, Bakhvistskali da etc. totally 21 HPPs (total installed capacity of 1 583 MW and generation of 5,5 bln.KWh) are under construction agreements.
 

The amount of investments to be intended for the construction of HPPs equals to USD2,4 bln. Against the background of the reduction of the fossil fuel energy resources the utilization of the wind, Solar and geothermal waters, bio-gas and various environmentally clean energy sources has become very actual for electricity generation and other practical reasons.
Georgia has significant wind potential through which average annual electricity generation is evaluated at 4 bln. KWh and installed capacity – 1500 MW. According to the wind energy potential the territory of Georgia is divided into high, mean and low speed zones where the wind speed fluctuates from 2,5m/s up to 9,0 m/s. The work lifetime amounts to 4000 -5000 hours annually. The most favorable places for wind farms are identified including the whole territory of Georgia.
At current stage the works are being carried out for the preparation of feasibility study for prospective wind farms which can be placed: - in Iaghluja mountain range (45 MW, 110 mln. KWh), Mta-Sabueti – (100MW, 370 mln KWh) – Samgori upland (45 MW,130 mln.KWh), - Gori –Skra section (90 MW, 250 mln. KWh), the nearby territory of the Kutaisi (90 MW, 225 mln KWh) – in the gorges of the rivers Faravani and Chorokhi – accordingly with 120 and 30 MW installed capacity and 336 and 90 mln. KWh electricity generation and etc.
 
Taking into consideration geographical location the effective radiation of the Sun is rather high in Georgia. In most regions of the country annual duration of solar shining ranges from 250 up to 280 days amounting to approximately 1900-2200 hours. The total solar energy potential is evaluated at 108 MW. Since the end of the last century the solar water boiling systems have become prevalent.

In our condition the solar energy allows to warm water up to 40 -50 degree.


In Georgia solar transformers are reasonable to be used only in the mountainous, non compact settlements and remote places due to their high efficiency. According to the hydro geological study of the territory of Georgia the forecasted stocks of geothermal waters equal to 200-250 mln m3 annually.
Geothermal water temperature ranges from 30 up to 110 0C, and the total debit 160 thousand cubic meters per day and night. There are well bores with water temperature of 85 0C. More than the 80 % of geothermal deposits are located in the western Georgia and Zugdidi –Tsaishi geothermal field. Comparatively low temperature of the geothermal waters does not allow generating electricity.
Despite this the utilization of this resource for providing hot water to settlements is of paramount importance in terms of saving expensive energy sources to be imported as well as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the abovementioned information additional 20 bln. KWh can be produced through renewable energy sources in the near future in Georgia with the capacity to save 7 mln. tones standard fuel. At the regional scale the natural riches outlined above will allow us to reduce the utilization of fossil fuel and accordingly the greenhouse gas emissions in the air: - CO2 – by 9 mln. tones, CO – by 5000 tones, NO2 – by 44 000 tones.

Nowadays little amount of the potential of existing renewable energy sources is utilized. By the attraction of investments it is possible to utilize electricity produced through renewable energy sources at regional level in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.This will alsol benefit Georgia in terms of the development of environmentally clean projects under the Kyoto Protocol. 

 

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